Research Services

Explora BioLabs can support your lead optimization and formulation evaluation programs. Obtain high-quality, dependable pharmacokinetic (PK) data in early-phase drug development program stages.

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Why Choose Us For Your PK/PD Study?

Explora has nurtured strong working relationships with numerous reputable bioanalytical companies for efficiently processing and analyzing samples from our PK studies. We can manage entire studies from drug to report, promising rapid turnaround times and high-quality results.

Explora BioLabs’ scientists know how important reliable and high-quality pharmacokinetic,data collection is to preclinical trials and preclinical development of drugs. Explora has established protocols in place to keep researchers’ schedules efficient and cost-effective while getting quality results.

When you work with Explora BioLabs, there are key advantages that you have access to, including:

  • Speedy turnaround time when it comes to supporting optimization and formulation evaluation
  • Guidance for obtaining high-quality and dependable pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data (PK/PD) in the initial phases of drug discovery
  • Superior technical proficiency
  • Over two decades of CRO study expertise

You Can Depend On The Following Expertise From The Explora Research Team

  • Established IACUC Study Protocols
  • Flexibility In Designing Customizable Study Protocols
  • Expertise With Small Molecules And Biologics
  • Stringent IACUC Oversight
  • Technicians with high technical proficiency, experienced in CRO study execution

Areas Of Proficiency

Our leaders at Explora BioLabs have the knowledge and expertise to aid biotechs in several different fields.

Animal Species:

  • Rat 
  • Mouse

Our Study Design Can Include The Following:

  • Single Dose Or Multiple Dose Administration
  • Comprehensive Tissue Collection For Biodistribution
  • Biofluid And Blood Samples
What Are  Pharmacokinetic (PK) And Pharmacodynamic (PD) Studies?

Pharmacology is the study of drug interactions with the human body. Under the umbrella of clinical pharmacology, there are many different fields of study, but the most notable two are pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD). 

Both study types focus on the complex chemical interactions between the human body and pharmaceuticals. Both pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics examine these interactions (of drugs and natural bodily processes) and use the information gathered to help determine the safety and effectiveness of pharmaceuticals.

Regulatory agencies and health authorities such as the FDA are tasked with drug approval processes for new drugs. They are also responsible for deciding whether a drug should remain on the market. 

Regulatory agencies rely on research and information provided by pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies to make these important decisions. In addition to approving new pharmaceuticals and deciding if existing drugs should remain on the market, regulatory agencies are also tasked with ensuring that these drugs perform how they should and are safe for human consumption. 

Thanks to pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, this FDA approval process exists. Without these research fields, the safety and efficacy of pharmaceuticals would be much more challenging to understand. 

  • Pharmacokinetics (PK) Study: Drug Concentration vs. Time in the Body – A pharmacokinetic (PK) study provides the basis for determining how drugs work within the human body, often over specific time periods. The main factors that are researched within a pharmacokinetic analysis make up the acronym ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion).
  • Absorption – Absorption is typically the first thing looked at in pharmacokinetic studies. Absorption is described as the process that happens when a pharmaceutical begins to be circulated within the bloodstream. In clinical PK studies, drugs are often administered in various ways (oral, dermal, nasal, etc.). After administration, the body’s reaction to the drug and the drug’s effectiveness is recorded.
  • Distribution – Distribution is the term used for the disbursement of an unmetabolized pharmaceutical within the body’s blood and tissues. Drug distribution inside the body can create favorable and adverse events or outcomes due to many different factors. These factors include lipid solubility, plasma concentration, tissue concentration, protein binding, and more. With the help of PK studies, a better understanding of how certain drugs circulate through the body can be achieved. 
  • Metabolism – Metabolism, one of the more closely studied categories within PK research, is the process in which a pharmaceutical is converted into a different chemical within the body. The metabolizing process happens mainly within the liver organ. Various factors can influence the rate at which a drug metabolizes, including general health, drug administration type, drug dosage, genetics, metabolic activity, and more.
  • Excretion – The expelling of bodily waste, known as excretion, is commonly the last stage of a PK study. Researchers look at how the body expels pharmaceuticals and other substances and also how long it takes for the body to do so. Most pharmaceuticals within the body are expelled through the urination process. An essential factor for the excretion process (as it relates to a PK study) is a drug’s solubility in water. The more soluble a drug is, the more quickly they are excreted through urination. 

Pharmacokinetics (PK) VS Pharmacodynamics (PD)

The most significant difference between pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics is that pharmacokinetics is the study of how pharmaceuticals perform within the body. In contrast, pharmacodynamics is the study that focuses more on the body’s biological response to drugs. Pharmacokinetics focuses on absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. Pharmacodynamics focuses on how biological processes within a body react because of the pharmaceutical. 

While these two fields are similar, the difference between the two is essential. The easiest way to remember these definitions and their related terms is that PK is how the body affects the drug, and PD is how the drug affects the body.

Uses Of PK/PD Studies

PK/PD studies are used for a variety of different purposes, but these studies always affect pharmaceutical parameters and clinical studies of drugs. PK and PD studies can be used to:

  • Understand Drug Exposure
  • Determine Appropriate Dosage
  • Manage Changes In Dosage Requirements
  • Estimate Elimination And Absorption Rates
  • Recognize Intra-Subject And Inter-Subject Variability
  • Understanding Drug Concentration-Effect Relationships
Frequently Asked Questions

Both study types focus on the complex chemical interactions between the human body and pharmaceuticals. Pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) both examine these interactions of drugs and natural bodily processes. They then use the results and information gathered to help determine the drug’s safety and effectiveness. For PK studies specifically, the movement of drugs through the body is studied. PD studies, on the other hand, focus on the body’s biological response to drugs. Many different fields use PK and PD research. Studies on anticancer drugs, drug-drug interactions, and more all use this research.

The main factors that are researched within a pharmacokinetic study make up the acronym ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion).

The most significant difference between pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics is that pharmacokinetics is the study of how drugs perform within the body, whereas pharmacodynamics is the study that focuses more on the body’s biological response to drugs.

Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data analysis are both fundamental within the medical industry. Because of these fields of study, we better understand how pharmaceuticals work and how the same medications can behave differently when taken by different people. Pharmaceutical developers rely on the insights that come from PK and PD research. This information allows developers to design better clinical and preclinical studies and, ultimately, more effective medication. With a fully realized understanding of how pharmaceuticals work, their limitations, and their benefits, doctors are better informed, and their treatments are more efficient.

Learn More 

Download our Pharmacokinetics Research Services brochure today, or contact us for more information.

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